1. In a short paragraph identify and explain the historical significance of four of the following.

Muhammed Ali


Canton System

Kwame Nkrumah

“Salt March”

“self strengthening”



The 14 Points

Sun Yat-Sen


Meji Constitution


2. Answer one of the following. (40 marks)

1) Discuss the nature of Simon Bolivar’s vision for Latin American independence (what did he hope to achieve and why) and account for the failure of these revolutionary movements to provide the lasting political, social and economic stability for Latin America which he envisioned.

2) By the mid to late nineteenth century the growth of Western power and influence increasingly forced groups and individuals within non-Western communities to respond through the creation of alternative visions of social construction.  Citing specific examples from at least two of the non-Western communities which we have examined discuss the nature of such visions for the reconstruction of community and assess the strengths and weaknesses of these responses.

3) By the beginning of the 19th century both Imperial China and the Ottoman Empire found themselves in a position of increasing vulnerability to European impositions.  Select one of these societies and examine the roots of this crisis as well as the manner in which they sought to respond to these new realities.  To what extent were such responses unsuccessful and why?

4) The first half of the 19th century witnessed the spread of informal European influences in Africa from limited coastal enclaves to significant portions of the continent’s interior.  Identify those factors which were most important in this process and assess its impact on African societies.  To what extent was this a truly revolutionary experience for African communities?

3. Answer one of the following. (40 marks)

1) By the late 19th century China was in the midst of a prolonged period of political instability which resulted in the collapse of the Chinese imperial system and ultimately the post-World War II triumph of the Chinese Communist Party.  To what extent were these events driven by issues internal to China itself or the actions of imperialist (Japanese or Western) forces external to China?

2) Compare and contrast British and French policies of colonial administration and assess the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches?  To what extent is it an accurate assessment that both approaches simply represented different paths to the same objective?

3) It has been suggested that colonialism “contained the seeds of its own destruction”.  Discuss the growth of anti-colonial nationalism in one of the following areas: the Arab Middle East, Africa, China, India and, citing specific examples, determine the extent to which the above statement is valid.

4) In the mid-19th Century Japan underwent a series of revolutionary transformations known as the Meiji Restoration.  Discuss the nature of this transformation and assess the extent to which it was responsible for the eventual emergence of Japanese imperial ambitions prior to the Second World War.