Law homework help. Add a title to the title page. You wrote TP2, but I suggest that you write a title that reflects the paper’s topic. In addition, before your first paragraph, center the paper’s title on the first line in title case, without bold font, as it appears on the title page. Your introductory paragraph/section will begin on the next line.
 
Let’s first review your thesis statement. The thesis statement is a clear statement of the overall point you want to make in your paper. It states exactly what your paper will be arguing. Every paper needs a thesis statement to showcase its point and it is usually the last sentence in the introduction. Here is an example of a clearly written thesis statement:
 
Eating a whole-food, plant-based diet promotes health benefits, prevents animal cruelty, and protects the planet.
 
This thesis states the purpose and topic of the paper and it has a clear argument. Your thesis statement should reflect exactly what to expect from your paper. A thesis statement presents the topic to be discussed and the position you will support and develop throughout the paper.  You end the introduction with the following:
 
To protect these critical infrastructural structures, the Department of Homeland Security comes up with various strategies that serve to offer protection for different components.
 
This is a good start, but you are asked to select a US federal government strategy document and compare and contrast it to a strategy document from another governmental entity. Your thesis should let the reader know what your topic is at the start of the paper. You don’t mention the two key strategy documents until page 3:
 
I will concentrate on two key strategy documents; the digital federal strategy document and the procurement federal strategy document.
 
I suggest that you identify the strategies at the start of your paper and end the introduction with a sentence that reflects your paper’s main idea. Your thesis statement should be able to stand alone. If someone reads just your thesis statement, he or she should be able to tell what your paper is about.
 
In addition, I suggest you avoid using “announcement” language known as metadiscourse. Metadiscourse is the language we use when we refer to our own thinking and writing, the structure or identity of our paper, or to our reader’s thinking as we write. It is writing about writing. This means avoiding phrases such as “I will concentrate on.”
 
Writing a direct thesis will strengthen your introduction. Presenting your argument or ideas directly is generally more effective. Below are examples from informing vs. announcing:
 
Announcement:
 
This essay will illustrate how William Shakespeare used comedy to create social commentary in The Taming of the Shrew.
 
Direct writing:
 
In The Taming of the Shrew, Shakespeare hides social commentary on the gender roles of his time behind the mask of comedy.
 
Announcement:
 
In this paper, I am going to tell you why you should make your kids get a flu vaccination.
 
Direct writing:
 
The flu vaccine is an essential tool for keeping our children healthy and preventing the spread of disease.
 
Refer to the EWC’s thesis statement tutorial for a handout and video on developing a thesis statement.
 
Your assignment requirement is to use APA style formatting. Be sure to always follow any specific formatting instructions your professor provides you. Here at the EWC, we have two important tools that can help you with APA style. These tools include the following:
 

 
Your running head is not formatted correctly. Refer to Purdue’s Online Writing Lab for guidelines and a sample title page at APA general format. Notice that APA formatting includes a running head in the top, left corner and page numbers in the top, right corner.
 
On the title page, the page header should include the following text flush left, capitalized as shown:
 
Running head:  SHORTENED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER
 
Every subsequent page should have only your paper’s short title capitalized in the header, flush left as shown:
 
SHORTENED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER
Let’s discuss in-text citations. Based on the APA’s recommendation in section 6.19 of the 6th ed. Publication Manual about including visible page numbers, paragraph numbers, or section information when citing specific parts of a source (APA, 2009, p. 179), the UMUC Library and the EWC recommend always including page numbers (or paragraph numbers or section information) in your APA in-text citations. This includes citations of quotations (words or phrases from a source) as well as paraphrases and summaries (the author’s ideas rewritten in your own words). We also suggest consulting your course materials or your professor if you have questions or concerns, because professors often have specific citation requirements.
This means you should include the author’s last name and the year either in a signal phrase introducing the material or in parentheses following it. In addition, give a page number, paragraph number, or section information to help readers find the passage. Here is an example: (Dickerson, 2011, p. 71). Here is an example of an in-text citation when the author is introduced in the sentence:
According to Dickerson (2011), people who adopt a whole-food, plant-based diet are less likely to develop heart disease (p. 71).
This is an example of an in-text citation for a direct quotation when the author is introduced in the sentence:
According to Dickerson (2011), “Adopting a whole-food, plant-based diet can prevent and reverse heart disease” (p. 56).
When an electronic source lacks stable numbered pages, include paragraph numbers or headings to help readers locate the particular passage being cited.  If the source has numbered paragraphs, use the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation “para.”: (Dickerson, 2011, para. 5). If the source contains headings, cite the appropriate heading in parentheses; you may also indicate the paragraph under the heading that you are referring to, even if the paragraphs are not numbered. Here is an example:
According to Dickerson (2011), “Adopting a whole-food, plant-based diet can prevent and reverse heart disease” (Heart Health section, para. 3).
When providing an in-text citation for a work by three to five authors, list all the authors the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses. For example: (Dickerson et al., 2011, p. 71). When providing an in-text citation for a work by six or more authors, use the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses every time you cite the source.
If no author is listed, list the name of the organization as the author. Here is an example: (American Vegan Society, 2017, para. 4).
If no author or organization name is given, use the article title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses. Here is an example:
Studies suggest that adopting a healthy lifestyle and plant-based diet can reverse type 2 diabetes (“Reversing Diabetes,” 2014, para. 5).
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)
Second citation: (MADD, 2000)
If the name of the group first appears in the narrative, put the abbreviation, a comma, and the year for the citation in parentheses after it.
The American Psychological Association (APA, 2011) suggested that parents talk to their children about family finances in age-appropriate ways.
If the name of the group first appears in parentheses, put the abbreviation in brackets after it, followed by a comma and the year for the citation.
Children should learn about family finances in age-appropriate ways (American Psychological Association [APA], 2011).
Make sure your in-text citations are formatted correctly. As I mentioned above, when citing a source with three to five authors, you need to identify all of the authors’ names in the citation the first time you cite the source. Below are examples and revisions:
It is thus important to protect these vital components of infrastructure from various vulnerabilities that may destroy the country’s economic base (Espinoza et. al., 2018).
It is thus important to protect these vital components of infrastructure from various vulnerabilities that may destroy the country’s economic base (Espinoza, Brooks, & Araujo, 2018).
This document involves the outline on various aspects of digital systems (Klievink et. al., 2017, June).
This document involves the outline on various aspects of digital systems (Klievink, Neuroni, Fraefel, & Zuiderwijk, 2017).
Refer to APA citation examples for help with citing sources throughout your paper.
Make sure your references list at the end of your paper meets APA formatting requirements. All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
 
Here are examples of an online article with no author, website, newspaper, book, pdf, and periodical:
 
All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/
American Heart Association.  (2009).  Learn your levels.  Retrieved from
http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=513
Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11iht-11brod.8685746.html
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Food and Agriculture Organization. (2007). Promises and challenges of the informal food sector in developing countries [PDF file]. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1124e/a1124e00.pdf
Wooldridge, M. B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2012.05.005
Below is an example from your paper followed by a revision:
 
Mergel, I. (2016). Social media institutionalization in the US federal government. Government information quarterly33(1), 142-148.
Mergel, I. (2016). Social media institutionalization in the US federal government. Government Information Quarterly33(1), 142-148.
 
Make sure your sentences are clearly worded. In this first example, it looks like a word is missing:
 
Additionally, their continued with steadfast quality, energy and quality make the sentiment of conviction and structure a critical bit of us national character and reason (Mergel, 2016).
 
Their “continued” what? It looks like a word should follow “continued.” In addition, capitalize “US.” Below are more examples with revisions.
 
These critical components infrastructure is the credited as the country’s backbone in relation to the economic status.
 
The critical components are credited as the country’s backbone in relation to the economic status.
 
To protect these critical infrastructural structures, the Department of Homeland Security comes up with various strategies that serve to offer protection for different components.
 
To protect these critical infrastructural structures, the Department of Homeland Security has developed various strategies that offer protection for different components.
 
Don’t forget to use commas when needed:
 
The stages involve access to information, pre-qualification, tendering, contract administration, and relationship management.
 
The following are a set of rules explaining when to use commas:

  1. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.
  2. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause.
  3. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use one comma before to indicate the beginning of the pause and one at the end to indicate the end of the pause.
  4. Do not use commas to set off essential elements of the sentence, such as clauses beginning with that (relative clauses). That clauses after nouns are always essential. That clauses following a verb expressing mental action are always essential.
  5. Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series.
  6. Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. Be sure never to add an extra comma between the final adjective and the noun itself or to use commas with non-coordinate adjectives.
  7. Use a comma near the end of a sentence to separate contrasted coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct pause or shift.
  8. Use commas to set off phrases at the end of the sentence that refer back to the beginning or middle of the sentence. Such phrases are free modifiers that can be placed anywhere in the sentence without causing confusion.
  9. Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and name), and titles in names.
  10. Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation.
  11. Use commas wherever necessary to prevent possible confusion or misreading.

Refer to Purdue’s comma rules for more details and examples.
 
Proofreading your paper is an important component of the writing process. Reading your paper out loud is particularly helpful for many things, including sentence clarity, grammar, punctuation, and tone. It is also helpful to have another person read over your paper to check for proofreading errors. A little extra time editing and proofreading your paper will help you to catch mistakes and polish your paper. Refer to the EWC’s proofreading checklist.
 
For more specific help with grammar, please go to the grammar help page.
 

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